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Glossary

A

Administrator

⇒ With great power comes great responsibility…
The administrator is a person in the IT department who is responsible for managing the company server. He takes care of updating, verifying proper operation and create new accounts, set permissions and file sharing, email, backup, security …
On a computer for private use, the administrator is the one who has the rights management system: in this case, you.

ADSL

ADSL means broadband Internet. ADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line) is practically deployed throughout the French territory and allows you to take advantage of speeds up to 30 Mega/s, which allows you to watch videos, download and navigate very easily.

ALSA

ALSA (Advanced Linux Sound Architecture) is a Linux kernel module which gather the function of several different sound drivers into one. It is used to detect sound cards whatever they are, it is very popular and very efficient. It greatly simplifies the management of sound on Linux and often updated.

Apt

Apt (Advanced Packaging Tool) is the Debian package manager using .deb packet formats. There are graphical interfaces as Synaptic or Adept for those who are not comfortable with the terminal.

Aptitude

Aptitude is an alternative to Apt. It offers other options such as the construction of dependency tree, updates the status of packages and many others. If Aptitude does not care about broken package, Aptitude tries to repair it during the update or upgrade. Finally, it is also interesting to see the behavior of Aptitude when uninstalling software: computes unneeded dependencies and deletes them. Apt only does what you ask clearly.

Arobase @

The “at” is the character used in e-mail addresses and bears the form of an A surrounded (eg user@fai.com). There are no at sign in a web address, only in the electronic mail.

Audio Format

Audio format is a data format used to represent data (storage and/or transport) sounds, music and voices in digital form.

Autonomy

Autonomy is the time that a battery enables a mobile unit to operate without having to be recharged by an electric outlet. The autonomy of a laptop is a few hours and that a mobile phone a few days in theory.

B

Beast

Computer name when it's big and powerfull.

BIOS

BIOS stands for Basic Input Output System, elementary input/output system. The BIOS is embedded software (firmware) of the motherboard that allows you to perform basic tasks when you turn the computer on(eg read a sector of a hard disk).

Boot manager

This is a program that launches at startup, allowing the choice between multiple operating systems booting the computer. The best known, Lilo and Grub are usually installed in the MBR (Master Boot Record)b of the hard drive. Although Windows has a similar software, it is much less obvious to implement Grub in a dual boot Linux/Windows.

Browser

Software used to navigate the Web.

Bug

A bug is unwanted operation in a computer or a computer program. We are talking about bug when the software does not do what you asked, it stops or do something weird or shutdown…

C

C

Computer language, which follows the A language and B language.

C++

Evolved C language. Warning, C+ does not exist!

Calculator

On the wind term to “Computer”, when you want to show off in front of the CFO.

Chat

Chat rooms live on the Internet where Internet users go to talk or meet new people. Unlike instant messaging, chat allows you to chat with everyone.

Click

A click is the action of pressing the left or right mouse button. Clicking wants to be very short, pressure with the finger is instantaneous. “Click”, unspecified, means “left-click”.

Client/Server

Common type of architecture on the Internet and more generally in computer science: A server contains information, clients connect to it and submit a request. Corresponding treatments are performed by the server and the result is displayed on the client computer. The Web is a good example of client/server application.

Cloud Computing

Cloud computing is a concept that begin to emerge: rather than install software on your computer, which will take place, the trend is now things are done online, without need to download. In this way we can now make the office from Google docs without installing anything on the computer, a browser is enough.

Code (to)

to program, speak “machine language” (no, it does not mean “make beep beep beep” …).

Code (Source)

The source code is the file that allowed the developer of the software program to be understood and then compiled into a program lines. Some source code are freely available to developers in particular in the context of free software.

Compile (to)

Start a command that converts source code into an executable program.

Console

Also named terminal, it is or not a GUI giving access to the shell allowing to execute command directly by typing the command line.

Chocolate chip cookie or nugget. small dry round chocolate chip cookie originating in the United States. Files sent by some websites and stored on your hard drive. On subsequent connections, your computer let the Web site retrieve data you have previously entered. Cookies can only be read by the website that issued and may contain only the data that the user voluntarily provided to the site, or can be retrieved at the connection (source IP address, etc). They can not read the disc's contents or contain an executable program. You can set your browser to reject cookies, but you lose the ergonomics (storing your preferences or passwords)

Copy and paste

Copy and paste represents the action to duplicate a file from one location to another. The file is cloned to a new destination. Copying and pasting is done for example by right-clicking a selection and choosing “Copy”, then in the destination folder to right-click and “Paste”. The keyboard shortcut for this action are Ctrl+C and Ctrl+V.

Core dump

Wallowing program under Unix, which has the effect of copying the entire contents of memory to a file named “core”. Not good… and rare.

Cut and paste

Cut and paste, moves a file without duplicate it: the file will no longer be present at its original location, but only to its destination. The keyboard shortcut for this action are Ctrl+X and Ctrl+V.

Cursor

⇒ arrow you have trouble keeping up on the screen…
The cursor is the projection of your mouse on the screen. Often symbolized by a slanted arrow cursor lets you point an element: an icon, a menu, a button to click on it to activate a function.

D

Debian

⇒ Mama of many distributions
Debian is a community and democratic organization whose purpose is the development of systems based exclusively on free software operating systems.
Debian differs from most of distributions based on it by its non-commercial nature and mode of cooperative governance association that manages the distribution. HandyLinux is proudly based on Debian.

Dependence

It is said that there is a dependency, when a packet depends on another to be installed and/or running. Example: its dependence on IT is a concern, try sending the packets of rice.

Desktop Environment

In the Unix world, a DE is a set of programs that provide a graphical interface to the operating system. It usually consists of a window manager and provides a lot of software that fit well to the environment, first and foremost file managers, control panels, web browsers, text editors and images, games, and even office suites and messaging.

Device

A device is a hardware that is connected to a computer. USB key, keyboard, mouse, printer … are devices

Dialog

A dialog box is a small window that appears when the system or software needs you to make a choice. you must therefore read the message and click the button that corresponds to your choice (yes or no Save or Cancel …)

Distribution

Distribution is a GNU/Linux system with a collection of softwares, which form a complete operating system from command line to graphical environment. The goal is to compute a stable and coherent set for a particular audience. Distribution provides different tools to obtain and install the software easily.
Some distributions are commercial, that is to say, manufactured and distributed by companies, they more or less follow the spirit of free software. Others are completely free, developed by volunteers.

Drag and drop

Drag and drop is the action of clicking on an icon, hold the click and move the mouse to another location, then release the click: selected files follow the mouse and move directly.

E

Email

An email can be written in plain text or HTML. In HTML case, the enrichment are possible (bold, color, image, tables) but some mail software (increasingly rare) does not read HTML message.

Ergonomics

Ergonomics refers to the ease of handling, understanding and use of equipment (eg telephone, a software or a website). It will be more ergonomic, the faster it will be handled by the user. Ergonomic system is intuitive.

F

File Manager

A file manager or file browser is a computer program that provides a user interface to work with file systems. The most common operations performed on files or groups of files include creating, opening (e.g. viewing, playing, editing or printing), renaming, moving or copying, deleting and searching for files, as well as modifying file attributes, properties and file permissions. Folders and files may be displayed in a hierarchical tree based on their directory structure. Some file managers contain features inspired by web browsers, including forward and back navigational buttons. Some file managers provide network connectivity.

File system

A file system (FS) , is how the data is organized on a partition. GNU/Linux has its own FS as ext2, ext3, ext4, ReiserFS, btrfs … and manages a multitude of file systems from other architectures, including FAT , VFAT (ie FAT32), NTFS (filesystems DOS/Windows), ISO 9660, etc.
A file system is called “journalized ” when it keeps on record (log) operations to perform, and then written to disk.

Firewall

The firewall is a software protection at the entrance of the network and computers, to prevent network intrusion. It controls the inputs and outputs and passes only allowed signals.

Firmware

Firmware is the program used to make the link between an advanced device (hard drive, DVD burner, scanner, ADSL modem) and your computer. It is written in language that includes electronic device program. We can compare the firmware of a device to the BIOS of a computer. It is which is responsible for initializing the device and receives orders from more advanced programs.

Fonts

A font writing (or font) represents a range of letters (characters) with a particular form.

Fork

It is often used in a figurative sense “branch” and “differentiation” from a common root. It is often through this process of differentiation that arise from new Linux distributions. More exactly it is to take a basic core or known program, modify it according to some purpose and redistribute.
HandyLinux is a fork Debian and as Debian find it usefull, HandyLinux was declared a derivative and we are very happy.

FTP

File Transfert Protocol. Protocol used to transfer files over the Internet. Also means the file transfer program that uses this protocol. It is necessary to have a specialized program for access to FTP servers.

G

Geek

Although the word may have a broader connotation, a geek is a computer enthusiast, usually passionate with other subjects (Eg. science fiction) and generally curious. Geek does not mean technology obsessed: geek just do not like to use the technology, they like to understand how it works and have critical thinking.

Graphics card

The graphics card is a component of the central unit responsible for the on-screen display. The powerful graphics card role is to manage 3D displays (video games) for. The main manufacturers of graphics cards are Nvidia and ATI.

GUI

The graphical interface refers to how software is presented on the screen for the user. It is the positioning of the elements: menus, buttons, features in the window. A graphical interface is well designed ergonomic and intuitive: given that the user understands immediately.

Gnome

GNOME stands for GNU Network Object Model Environment is a friendly free graphical environment which goal is to make available the use of the GNU operating system to the greatest number, this interface is currently popular on GNU/Linux systems and also works on most UNIX-like systems.

GNU

The GNU project (“GNU's not Unix”) is a community initiated in 1983 by Richard Stallman to create a free operating system alternative to Unix.
GNU is particularly known in computer because it has made major ​​contributions such as the GCC compiler, improvements of existing Unix commands or the free GNU General Public License (GPL).
GNU has also worked on a kernel called HURD, but ultimately it is Linux that became the kernel to use the other bricks of the project.

H

Hack or Trick

Middle bypassed, not very Catholic, to make it works.

Hard Drive

The hard drive is a component of a computer. It is computer chest treasury, its role is to store data. The hard drive contains partitions that contain your installed and your personal data
⇒ notes Soft Drive does not exist …

Hardware

The hardware part of a computer system (the beast, cards, chips, processor, etc.), as opposed to Software part.

High definition

High Definition is the successor to the television as we knew. HD is a new standard for audio visual benefit from image quality and superior sound as well as a larger image size. The difference is obvious. Video games also (PS3 and Xbox360) and Blu-Ray (successor to the DVD). However you will need money and a compatible hardware to enjoy (compatible HDTV TNT HD, HDMI, Blu-Ray player …).

HDMI

HDMI is a standard for connecting High Definition devices. It is replacing the Scart socket. You can connect a Blu-Ray player for example to an HDTV with an HDMI cable, even with a PS3 and Xbox 360. HDMI stands for High-Definition Multimedia Interface, which can result in multimedia connectivity to high definition.

I

Icon

An icon is a pictogram of a name representing an element: folder, file, software, shortcut … clicking on an icon will launch an action: open the file, launch software, display content…

IM

IM refers to a software where you can communicate directly (or chat) with friends and family, possibly share files, use the microphone and see the webcam. Unlike a chat, instant messaging lets you talk with your contact list, and not just anyone.

Internet

Internet includes all interconnected (wired and wireless) networks in the world and websites. With Internet access, you can access all websites in the world in one click, listen to music, communicate, watch videos, learn … from your computer or mobile phone.

IN/OUT

Input/Output (or I/O) are the exchange of information between the processor and the devices associated with it. In practice, in an operating system, the inputs are the keyboard, mouse, disks, network (which enters as information) and outputs the screen, disks, network (which comes out as information ).

IP Adress

Single address across the Internet network, to identify a machine. It is usually presented as a group of four numbers. If your computer is connected to the Internet, it has an IP address that is usually provided at connection with your Internet Service Provider (ISP).

ISP

Internet Providers let you enjoy Internet. Each of them provides an interface allowing you to connect to the Internet, have unlimited landline and digital TV.

IRC

Internet Relay Chat. Discussion System in real time on the Internet. There are several IRC networks themselves divided into “channels” themes.

J

Java

Multiplatform programming language by Sun. The principle is that a program written in Java can run on any computer as long as it has a subroutine called “Java Virtual Machine”. This converts Java virtual machine instructions into specific instructions to your computer while requiring it to meet certain safety rules. Java programs are loaded and executed when displaying the page that contains them. They are named applet. (When it is blue, it is the most beautiful (if you're french you could perhaps understand).

JPEG

graphic file format for impressive compression ratios compared to previous formats, but at the expense of image quality, it is indeed a destructive format. The corresponding file extension is JPG.

K

Kernel

A core operating system, or simply kernel, is a key part of some operating systems. It manages computer resources and allows different components - hardware and software - to communicate with each other.

Keyboard Shortcut

A keyboard shortcut is a combination of keys pressed simultaneously on the keyboard to perform a specific action on the computer. Keyboard shortcuts most commonly used for saving (Ctrl + S) to copy (Ctrl + C), paste (Ctrl + V), or close a window (Alt + f4) …

Kiss

The KISS principle, “Keep it Simple Stupid”, is a method which advocates seeking simplicity in design and avoiding unnecessary complexity. Example: Give me a KISS.

L

Lag (to)

Run slowly. A wheelbarrow, that lags.

Live CD

A live CD (and a USB key live) is a bootable CD. The system starts to boot the computer and runs OS without installation. It actually uses the memory (RAM) to run, and does not affect the physical memory (hard disk).

Free Software

Free Software is a concept of free software and exploitation creators put the source code used to create the software available to other developers involved in the advance systems. We find for example the GNU/Linux initiative which includes a free and open operating systems such as Debian or HandyLinux but also LibreOffice, free Microsoft Office, and Firefox or Chromium

Long (it's not gonna be)

Sentence used by the computer people to say that they still have 2 hours to finish (the time to compile, test, fix, compile, test, fix, compile …)

M

Mail

mail refers to a letter sent by Internet via email software (Eg. Icedove). The mails are free, usually limited to 10MB, which can be accompanied by attachments (images, documents …) and sent to a recipient (At :) and potentially copy (CC :). Unwanted mails are called junk or spam.

Memory card

The memory card is a small block storing computer data, such as a USB key. The memory card is intended to a device such as a digital camera or digital camcorder. It can store photos and movies, and can be read from a computer with a slot. Among the most popular formats, we find the MemoryStick card for Sony devices, and SD for most others. A recent memory card can store thousands of photos.

Motherboard

The motherboard is the main component of the CPU. Its role is to centralize and process exchanged data in a computer. The motherboard therefore manages the Hard Disk, a Disk, keyboard and mouse, network, USB ports…

N

No Life

Nolife is an insane geek or nerd so passionate he spends all his time to his passion neglecting everything else and has no (or hardly) social life. No comment … 8-)

Noob

“Noob” term (derived from “newbie” or novice) is a computer novice. The term is not necessarily pejorative. “OldNoob” is widely used to evoke handylinux users.

Notification Area

The notification area is located in the taskbar at the bottom right of the screen. We find time, network indicator, volume. This is where the messages appear when the system has something to tell you (eg the battery is running empty, updates are available …)

O

Operating System

This is a collection of software that manages computer hardware and provides common services for computer programs. The operating system is an essential component of the system software in a computer system. Application programs usually require an operating system to function.
Some examples of operating systems : GNU/Linux, Windows, Mac OS X, FreeBSD.

OS

Operating System.

P

Package Manager

A package manager is a software to install, uninstall and update its packages. On HandyLinux,Synaptic is the Debian package manager.

Partition

To use certain media such as hard disks, we need to structure them, break them into large subsets: partitions. Each partition is then itself a structured file system. To cut a hard drive into multiple partitions allows eg. to make coexist two different operating systems as GNU/Linux and Windows, using different file systems.

Phishing

Phishing is a scam practice of tricking a user by sending him email linked to a fake website of his bank, an e-commerce site asking him to connect to update its information… The user is trapped (or phished) and informations (privates, bank…) can be used to evil ends.

Pixel

Pixel component is the smalest square screen, displaying a color at a time. The screen is composed of millions of these pixels in height and width. All of these pixels form the image of the screen. A pixel is so small that it's hard to see at naked eye. The more pixels you have the clearest image it is.

Plugin

Complementary program that allows a software to do more. Eg. to read more image formats, video, animation or sounds.

PS/2 Port

PS/2 port is a plug to the rear of the system unit for connecting a keyboard (wearing plug) and mouse (green plug). However, the PS/2 ports are to be replaced by USB (Universal Serial Bus). The big disadvantage of this plug is the fact of not being hotplug. able to connect after ignition.

Processor

The processor is the brain of the computer, the one which organizes the exchange of data between the various components (hard drive, RAM, graphics card) and makes ​​the calculations the computer interacts with you and displays your system screen.

Q

Queue

Existing word in both French and English, and is used in the sense of “waiting file”. Eg. different prints are queued by printer.

Quit (to)

Ending the execution of a program. Eg. Give me the TV program or I quit!

R

RAM

Random-access memory is the worth daft punk album is a computer data storage. RAM device allows data items to be read and written faster than others.In contrast, with other direct-access data storage media the time required to read and write data items varies depending on their locations and/or mechanical limitations such as media rotation speeds and arm movement delays.

Right-click

Right click is instant pressure on the right button of the mouse, and will display a context menu to interact with the pointed element. In particular, it allows copying, moving, deleting and renaming the element pointed if it is a file or a folder.

RTFM

Means “Read The Fucking Manual”. This is an abbreviation that is thrown wildly at the head of someone who asks a question to encourage them to do research.
This is because people sometimes ask trivial questions, whose answers are readily available in the man pages or on the internet, and people are not used to the power of documentation in the Unix world.
RTFM is prohibited on HandyLinux … we help or guide the user in a courteous manner to the page of appropriate documentation.

S

Search Engine

A search engine is a site indexing all other websites and allows you to ask a question or typing words to search. The engine will then return the most relevant results.

Shortcut

A shortcut is an icon placed anywhere and providing quick access to software or a location on your computer. This is a shortcut that most of the time is used to launch a program. Deleting a shortcut does not uninstall the program to which it leads, or the linked file.

Software

The software part, programs.

T

Tab

Generally present in Internet browsers, tabs allow to browse multiple sites simultaneously. To switch from one to another, you must click on the corresponding tab, presented as tabs in a workbook.

Terminal

Designates the console command lines available and vital to all GNU/Linux distributions.
Even though many GUIs are available for virtually any application, nothing better than to update its entire system by typing single command line.

Troll

In the world of Usenet, forums, mailing lists, IRC, and any place that lends itself to discussion, a troll is a controversial topic, or an individual who initiates discussions on controversial subjects. Known examples: “GNU/Linux or Windows” “Women in Free Software.”

U

Unit (Central)

The central unit is the box containing all the electronic equipment that allows the computer to operate. Keyboard, mouse, monitor are connected to it. It is in the central unit which is inserted a disc, for example. There is no CU for a laptop, all the electronics are grouped under the computer keyboard.

Unix

Unix is a multitasking, multi-user computer OS. The original Unix was developed in 1969. Unix systems are characterized by a modular design that is sometimes called the “Unix philosophy,” meaning the OS provides a set of tools that each perform well-defined function, with a unified filesystem to perform complex workflows.

Update

An update is a program that makes a correction to an existing program. The update may fix a security hole, add new functionality, fix an error …

URL

The URL (Uniform Ressource Locator) points to the address of a website as "http://handylinux.org". By typing a URL in the address bar of a browser, you go directly to the desired site, without having to go through a search engine. You never need to type the "http://", content yourself simply to type “handylinux.org”.

USB

USB stands for Universal Serial Bus. It is a rectangular connection that wants universal: almost all current hardware connects via USB to your computer. Computers now have USB ports on the back as the front of the CPU, but also sometimes on your screen.

V

Virtual Desktop

It's all available workspaces in an environment of GNU/Linux, linux can manage many different workspaces and thus windows applicable to these workspaces. HandyLinux comes with one virtual desktop. You can change this behavior in the configuration settings.

VGA

Video Graphics Array (VGA) refers to the display hardware first introduced with the IBM PS/2 in 1987, also come to mean either an analog computer display standard, the 15-pin D-subminiature VGA connector or the 640×480 resolution itself. While this resolution was superseded in the personal computer market in the 1990s, mobile devices have only caught up in the last few years.

VPN

refers to an encrypted network in the Internet, which allows a company whose premises are geographically dispersed to communicate and share documents completely secure, as if there was a local with an internal network.

W

Web

Web means Internet and refers to networks that run the world and connect computers together in the manner of a spider web. Surfing the Web is to say: browse the Internet.

Web Browser

The Internet browser is a software that allows you to view websites, download files and do some research. HandyLinux comes with Chromium, the Google Chrome open source version.

Wiki

A wiki (Hawaiian word meaning “quick”) is a web site which pages are editable by visitors to allow the creation of a collaborative content. (And you're not afraid to give the keys to strangers?).

Window

A window is a rectangular area that appears on the screen to display the contents of a folder, text for example, or even software. The window can take all the space (full-screen) or only a part windowed). It is possible to view multiple windows simultaneously and drag items from one to another using drag and drop.

Window Manager

The window manager is the X (graphical) client that has windows and manages them (title bar, framing, moving, resizing, etc..). Applications, have the inside of the window they create and manage the content and the interaction with this content.
It is possible to change the window manager and to see all the appearance of the screen change completely.
When the window manager can do many other things in addition to what has been described, it is a desktop environment like XFCE.

WWW

Initials World Wide Web.

X

X Window

X Window System, commonly called X Windows, X11 or just X is the graphics subsystem of GNU/Linux. X Window is not only a driver for the video card, it is mainly an interface (API) for applications, so that they appear on the screen and receive input from the keyboard and mouse.

X Org

Free X server used by GNU/Linux distributions.

X (x)

Porn movie category. Warning! It is absolutely forbidden to speak about on the site / forum / wiki / blog Handylinux under penalty of permanent ban from one of our friendly administrators.! ;-)

Y

Yes We Can

Yes We can make you understand your computer, use it to do what you want and share knowledge…

Yaen

It's my name and I poorly translate the glossary cause I'm french and you know what ? French only speaks french… but sometimes.

Z

Zen

«Stay zen», means keeping calm. Zen Buddhism has always been appreciated by hackers. This is a fundamental virtue of good programmer, especially in debugging phase … or when translating a glossary ;-)

Zip

Compression format files used most. Requires a specific program for decoding the compressed file.

Zombie

[Unix] program ended but which father was not informed of his death. Its data are yet available, so it is still a bit alive … A program whose father was destroyed in turn is an orphan.


sources

glossary.txt · Last modified: 2017/01/14 03:01 (external edit)